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Maximize ANABOLISM Through Protein Manipulation

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Excerpt: HOW MEALS CAN CONTROL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Remember that muscle mass is subject to a constant protein turnover.Old proteins are degraded(catabolism)while new ones are formed(anabolism). Meals stimulate muscle protein synthesis while fasting reduces it.By the same token, meals reduce catabolism while fasting enhances it.As a result,meals make your muscles bigger and fasting makes them smaller. You may wonder how eating or not eating can effect the protein turnover so dramatically. The

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  1. #1
    Olympian MonStar1023's Avatar
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    May 2001
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    Post Maximize ANABOLISM Through Protein Manipulation

    Remember that muscle mass is subject to a constant protein turnover.Old proteins are degraded(catabolism)while new ones are formed(anabolism). Meals stimulate muscle protein synthesis while fasting reduces it.By the same token, meals reduce catabolism while fasting enhances it.As a result,meals make your muscles bigger and fasting makes them smaller. You may wonder how eating or not eating can effect the protein turnover so dramatically. The intracellular machinery responsible for muscle protein synthesis is cumbersome,but it can be stopped or activated quickly at the initiation level. Inside each muscle cell there are many little "machines" that make new proteins. If the machines work rapidly enough, new proteins, which are responsible for muscle contractions, will accumulate and your muscles will get bigger and stronger.Each anabolic machine has two switches: One to turn it on and one to turn it off. The on button initiates the machine's action, and scientists call those initiators eIF4E, for eukaryotic initiation factor 4E. The more free eIF4E there is inside your muscle cells, the stronger the anabolic drive will be. The off button,which stops the initiation,is called 4E-BP1.BP, or binding protein, is just like IGF-BP1,a protein that binds to IGF. When binding proteins bind to a molecule,they usually trap and inactivate it. Whenever 4E-BP1 binds to eIF4E,it forms a complex called eIF4E.4E-BP1. As a result,the freeeIF4E is now trapped and cannot switch on the muscle building machines. Therefore,eIF4E represents the bottleneck of muscle protein synthesis--Where anabolism is switched on or off in the short term. As you eat protein,the amino acids it contains free your eIF4E from the 4E-BP1. That's how most of the anabolic influences of dietary proteins work. New research suggests amino acids may also directly reduce the production of another binding protein, IGF-1BP1, which prevents IGF-1 from producing its muscle building effects. Therefore, amino acids also have a positive effect on your anabolic hormone levels and the growth reactions they produce. It's easy to understand that the more your muscles are exposed to amino acids, the more free eIF4E will initiate anabolism.Nevertheless,you have to reach a certain amino acid threshold to free enough eIF4E to increase anabolism signifigantly. Whey protein, which is absorbed very rapidly, is the easiest and most efficient means of reaching that threshold. It's superior for increasing protein synthesis because it provides a pharmacological level of amino acids called "hyperaminoacidemia". The hormone insulin also has the ability to free eIF4E to some extent. Its effects are weaker than those of amino acids, but it can work wonders when combined with amino acids. When you fast, your blood's amino acid levels are reduced. Increasingly more eIF4E becomes locked by the 4E-BP1, and your anabolic drive slows. So to free the eIF4E, you eat protein, and to trap it, you fast. The blood protein level acts as an accelerator or a brake for anabolism: Low protein equals low anabolism, while high protein equals high anabolism. Naturally, you want to speed up anabolism as often as possible, so you have to ingest protein frequently. That's the rationale behind eating 6+ times a day. You get to accelerate anabolism during most of the day instead of braking often, as you do on a traditional three-meals-a-day plan.

    Whenever the blood level of amino acids rises but not to the anabolic threshold, it stops catabolism and has almost no effect on anabolism. Proteins like casein, which don't come close to reaching the anabolic threshold, are very good at providing long-lasting muscle protection because of their slow, gradual absorbtion. Whenever a muscle doesn't get its basic supply of exogenous amino acids from the diet, it will cannibalize itself to provide new muscle-building blocks. Casein offers along-lasting guarantee against that cannibalization thaks to its natural time-released action. Insulin is also responsible in part for the meal-induced reduction in catabolism. Insulin is usually an anti-catabolic hormone, except right after training (where it becomes anabolic). Fasting produces a lack of insulin,which rapidly triggers catabolism.

    Today's protein powders make it possible for your body to absorb much more protein. That's especially true with high-quality whey or caesin products. They're pre-digested,so all you have to do is open your mouth and swallow, and amino acids enter your blood stream almost instantaniously. Research has shown that signifigant amounts of whey or casein are in your blood within 20 minutes of ingestion. It doesn't take hours to absorb them. Two hours after admistration, however,whey is long gone while casein is still there, producing its anti-catabolic actions. A high speed of absorbtion, such as you get with whey protein, requires that you eat very frequently. Today's high-tech proteins are wasted if you only eat three times a day because they enter and leave your system so rapidly. Even the more recent recommendation of eating every three waking hours can be innefficient if you use only fast-absorbing whey protein. The slower and harder to digest milk-and-egg protein mixture is better suited to the every-three-hours scenario. While the introduction of whey allowed bodybuilders to reach a new, higher level of protein absorbtion, it also meant that six meals a day weren't enough for experienced bodybuilders using mostly whey protein.. In that case,ten meals a day would be better for maintaining an anabolic state. The solution is to introduce high-qualty, slower-absorbing casein. A whey-and-casein combination allows you to stay within the less constraining confines of the six-meals-a-day regimen (and still maintain an anabolic/anti-catabolic state). Compared to three normal meals, which bring in at most 150-180 grams of protein a day, six meals can help you easily take in 250+ grams. Advanced drug-using bodybuilders can build up to ten meals a day to reach the 400-500 gram mark. Steroids increase the need for protein because they accelerate muscle-protein turnover. What's more, many steroid users have to reduce their carb intake, or they blow up because of the excessive water-retention that the drugs can induce. That means that they must the protein to re-coup the calorie deficit created by lower-carb diets.

    A common misconception among weightlifters is that your body builds muscle mass while you sleep. During your nocturnal fast, your muscles become net exporters of amino acids, which means you're in a catabolic phase. MoreeIF4E.4EBP1 complexes are formed, slowing the anabolic drive. So,while a minimal anabolic response repairs some of the muscle damage inflicted by training, the overall balance is usually negative due to nocturnal catabolism. You can recover faster and grow more if you tame it. The first way of taming nocturnal catabolism is to have a casein or casein-and-whey protein shake right before bed. The timed release of amino acids will protect your muscles. Of course,eating carbs along with the casein would accentuate the anti-catabolic effect, but the problem is it's fattening to eat carbs at night. It's a trade-off, and you must decide if you want to run the risk of adding a little bit of fat in exchange for more muscle or sacrifice a little bit of muscle for hardness. Unless you're exceptionally lean, I'd advise against eating carbs at night. The second technique is to eat in the middle of the night. In that case you face a new factor on top of the hardness-vs.-extra-muscle issue, and that's the quality of sleep. If waking up in the middle of the night makes you irritable the following day, don't do it. If you tend to wake up in the middle of the night anyway-Say to go to the bathroom-have another whey-and-casein drink. In either case, remember the first thing you want to do in the morning is free your eIF4E with a huge whey protein drink. That will jump start your anabolism and partly make up for the night time slow down.

    You might wonder if the advantages of whey and casein protein counteract each other. Nature provides a particularly bright answer. Everyone knows that mother's milk contains protein that has an exceptional ability to support very fast growth, but did you know that it's a combination of both whey and casein? With the anabolic properties of whey,and the anti-catabolic action of casein, mother's milk is an example of a nutrient optimized to support growth.

    For bodybuilders, the whey/casein combination provides the anabolic effect of whey while counteracting its short-lasting action and its lack of anti-catabolic properties. Using the whey/casein combination between real-food meals allows you to be a bit less strict with your meal timing, and that can certainly be advantageous to those who work a nine-to-five job or go to school, where it isn't practical to follow a rigid 6+ meals-a-day frequency.....

    Well,as you can see fella's, a whey/casein combination offers benifits towards maintaining a state of positive nitrogen retention that standard whey-only powders do not address. I personally always use a whey/casein combination for this very reason, as it provides you with a true, time-released absorbtion of amino acids to promote growth, and more importantly, KEEP it.

  2. #2
    Pro Bodybuilder Rebelrocker's Avatar
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    Sep 2001
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