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Major Endocrine Organs


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Excerpt: I know it is not a diet concern but it is still interesting (From MAF FITNESS NEWSLETTER Vol. III, Issue 9, Sept 1996) Pituitary Gland This important endocrine organ, about the size of a pea, secretes at least nine major hormones. Growth Hormone (GH ), which stimulates overall body growth by signaling cells to increase production of proteins and growth in epiphyseal (growth) plates in bones. GH supplements are sometimes taken by athletes, like body builders, in an effort to increase

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  1. #1
    anthrax's Avatar
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    Major Endocrine Organs

    I know it is not a diet concern but it is still interesting
    (From MAF FITNESS NEWSLETTER Vol. III, Issue 9, Sept 1996)


    Pituitary Gland
    This important endocrine organ, about the size of a pea, secretes at least nine major hormones.

    Growth Hormone (GH ), which stimulates overall body growth by signaling cells to increase production of proteins and growth in epiphyseal (growth) plates in bones. GH supplements are sometimes taken by athletes, like body builders, in an effort to increase body mass; which it does, but with uncontrolled (unpredictable?) results. Acromegaly, a condition of abnormal growth (e.g., very large jaw, nose, and/or hands) may be produced. This condition can also happen as a result of pituitary disorders.

    Prolactin (PRL), which causes milk production in breasts.

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH ), which jump-starts the thyroid gland into producing thyroid hormone.

    ACTH (you don't what to know what that stands for), which causes release of glucorticoids from the adrenal cortex.

    MSH (same as above - you don't want to know), which seems to darken skin by stimulating melanocytes (see Issue 3, of the March 1996 Newsletter), in the epidermal skin layer.

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH ), which is involved in the maturing of sex cells, and their secretion.

    LH does more of the same as in item number 6.
    In females, FSH and LH stimulate maturation of ovarion follicles, and secretion of estrogen and progesterone. Also, during menstruation, a large amount of LH is released to induce ovulation. In males, LH signals the secretion of androgens - mainly testosterone - and FSH stimulates maturation of sperm cells and secretion of sex hormones.


    The antidiuretic (ADH ) helps to inhibit urination during dehydration in an attempt to lessen its effects.

    Oxytocin helps contract the uterus to discharge the baby during childbirth, and to express milk during breast feeding.

    The Thyroid Gland
    This gland, located in the neck, is the largest endocrine gland, and has a very large blood supply.

    The main task of the thyroid gland is to produce and secrete thyroid hormone (TH ) called thyroxine, of which there are two forms: T3 and T4. They are constructed of a pair of amino acids and contain iodine. The primary job of TH is to increase the basal metabolism rate (BMR), now often called resting metabolism rate (RMR)). Abnormal TH production causes hyperactivity, nervousness, a constant feeling of warmth; or sluggishness, and a feeling of being cold.

    The Parathyroid Glands

    They are attached to, or next to, the thyroid gland, but are distinctly separate.

    The parathyroid hormone (PT, or PTH) increases calcium in the blood when its level falls below its norm. As you all know, calcium is intimately involved in muscle contractions; therefore, an inadequate amount causes neuro-muscular malfunctions - potentially death. An inadequate calcium supply is "shored up" by: 1) calcium release from bone, 2) more calcium saved from the kidneys - it doesn't get urinated away, and 3) vitamin D is activated, which promotes calcium absorption. Don't worry, there is also a way that too much calcium is avoided - calcitronin, which is produced in the thyroid gland, reduces it.

    The Adrenal Glands

    These glands (now sometimes called suprarenal glands) "sit" on top of the kidneys and help us humans deal with bigtime stress - danger, terror, really scary stuff.

    A primary function is to secrete catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine that elicit the legendary "fight-or-flight" response).

    In addition, a number of steroid hormones are secreted (corticosteroids): sex hormones, aldosterone (which is secreted in response to a low blood volume or pressure, and results in collection of water and sodium in the blood), glucocorticoids (which help weather stress by keeping high glucose levels available for the brain, and, at-the-same-time forcing other body cells to switch to fats and amino acids for food). Too many glucocorticoids depress inflammatory response and inhibit immune system activity.

    The Pineal Gland

    This gland secretes the hormone melatonin, which helps regulate our circadian rhythms (like the sleep-wake cycle).

    The Pancreas

    This is the house of A-cells, which secrete glucagon, which tells the liver to release glucose from stored glycogen to raise blood sugar levels when they go too low; and B-cells, which secrete insulin, which tells body cells to collect glucose from the blood, and thereby lower high blood sugar levels.

    The Thymus

    This organ builds T-cells - immune cells. The thymus is most active in children, and shrinks with age; although it remains active, to some extent. This organ works at helping T-cells to mature - gain immunocompetence .

    The Gonads

    These are the main source of the steroid sex hormones - mainly testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. Testosterone maintains male sex organs, secondary sex characteristics, and sperm production. In females, estrogen and progesterone maintain reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics, and signal the uterus to prepare for pregnancy.
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  2. #2
    Nelson Montana's Avatar
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    Re: Major Endocrine Organs

    Quote Quote posted by anthrax View Post
    I know it is not a diet concern but it is still interesting
    (From MAF FITNESS NEWSLETTER Vol. III, Issue 9, Sept 1996)


    Pituitary Gland
    This important endocrine organ, about the size of a pea, secretes at least nine major hormones.

    Growth Hormone (GH ), which stimulates overall body growth by signaling cells to increase production of proteins and growth in epiphyseal (growth) plates in bones. GH supplements are sometimes taken by athletes, like body builders, in an effort to increase body mass; which it does, but with uncontrolled (unpredictable?) results. Acromegaly, a condition of abnormal growth (e.g., very large jaw, nose, and/or hands) may be produced. This condition can also happen as a result of pituitary disorders.

    Prolactin (PRL), which causes milk production in breasts.

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH ), which jump-starts the thyroid gland into producing thyroid hormone.

    ACTH (you don't what to know what that stands for), which causes release of glucorticoids from the adrenal cortex.

    MSH (same as above - you don't want to know), which seems to darken skin by stimulating melanocytes (see Issue 3, of the March 1996 Newsletter), in the epidermal skin layer.

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH ), which is involved in the maturing of sex cells, and their secretion.

    LH does more of the same as in item number 6.
    In females, FSH and LH stimulate maturation of ovarion follicles, and secretion of estrogen and progesterone. Also, during menstruation, a large amount of LH is released to induce ovulation. In males, LH signals the secretion of androgens - mainly testosterone - and FSH stimulates maturation of sperm cells and secretion of sex hormones.


    The antidiuretic (ADH ) helps to inhibit urination during dehydration in an attempt to lessen its effects.

    Oxytocin helps contract the uterus to discharge the baby during childbirth, and to express milk during breast feeding.

    The Thyroid Gland
    This gland, located in the neck, is the largest endocrine gland, and has a very large blood supply.

    The main task of the thyroid gland is to produce and secrete thyroid hormone (TH ) called thyroxine, of which there are two forms: T3 and T4. They are constructed of a pair of amino acids and contain iodine. The primary job of TH is to increase the basal metabolism rate (BMR), now often called resting metabolism rate (RMR)). Abnormal TH production causes hyperactivity, nervousness, a constant feeling of warmth; or sluggishness, and a feeling of being cold.

    The Parathyroid Glands

    They are attached to, or next to, the thyroid gland, but are distinctly separate.

    The parathyroid hormone (PT, or PTH) increases calcium in the blood when its level falls below its norm. As you all know, calcium is intimately involved in muscle contractions; therefore, an inadequate amount causes neuro-muscular malfunctions - potentially death. An inadequate calcium supply is "shored up" by: 1) calcium release from bone, 2) more calcium saved from the kidneys - it doesn't get urinated away, and 3) vitamin D is activated, which promotes calcium absorption. Don't worry, there is also a way that too much calcium is avoided - calcitronin, which is produced in the thyroid gland, reduces it.

    The Adrenal Glands

    These glands (now sometimes called suprarenal glands) "sit" on top of the kidneys and help us humans deal with bigtime stress - danger, terror, really scary stuff.

    A primary function is to secrete catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine that elicit the legendary "fight-or-flight" response).

    In addition, a number of steroid hormones are secreted (corticosteroids): sex hormones, aldosterone (which is secreted in response to a low blood volume or pressure, and results in collection of water and sodium in the blood), glucocorticoids (which help weather stress by keeping high glucose levels available for the brain, and, at-the-same-time forcing other body cells to switch to fats and amino acids for food). Too many glucocorticoids depress inflammatory response and inhibit immune system activity.

    The Pineal Gland

    This gland secretes the hormone melatonin, which helps regulate our circadian rhythms (like the sleep-wake cycle).

    The Pancreas

    This is the house of A-cells, which secrete glucagon, which tells the liver to release glucose from stored glycogen to raise blood sugar levels when they go too low; and B-cells, which secrete insulin, which tells body cells to collect glucose from the blood, and thereby lower high blood sugar levels.

    The Thymus

    This organ builds T-cells - immune cells. The thymus is most active in children, and shrinks with age; although it remains active, to some extent. This organ works at helping T-cells to mature - gain immunocompetence .

    The Gonads

    These are the main source of the steroid sex hormones - mainly testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. Testosterone maintains male sex organs, secondary sex characteristics, and sperm production. In females, estrogen and progesterone maintain reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics, and signal the uterus to prepare for pregnancy.
    Good info to know.

  3. #3
    HEAD MODERATOR stevesmi's Avatar
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    Re: Major Endocrine Organs

    it is scary how these parts of the body allow life to exist. imagine what people thought hundreds of years ago
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